Calibration is the process of converting the raw signal recorded by the satellite to the measurand. Examples include converting raw AVHRR counts to a radiance or brightness temperature. The calibration process is normally defined by an algorithm and a set of calibration coefficients.
Copernicus Climate Change Service
(ESA) Climate Change Initiative
Climate Data Record
Climate Data Store
Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services
Climate and Forecast (metadata convention)
Common errors are constant (or nearly so) across the satellite image, and may be shared across the measured radiances for a significant proportion of a satellite mission. Common errors might typically be referred to as biases in the measured radiances.
An adjustment made to correct for a known bias. This may have a functional form (e.g. a straight line) with multiple correction parameters (e.g. an offset and slope). Note that even after correction there will always be a residual, unknown error.