Effects for a particular measurement process that do not vary (or vary coherently) from (one set of) measurement(s) to (another set of) measurement(s) and therefore produce systematic errors that cannot be reduced by averaging. Add new comment Your name * E-mail * The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. Homepage Comment * CAPTCHAThis question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Math question * 4 + 14 = Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. E.g. for 1+3, enter 4.